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Both are very sophisticated architects.

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They benefit from this world wide information but they also work in a very specific way where they are. So there is still the possibility to decline locally the global culture. Is it true? It was certainly a reaction to the postmodern movement. The real question is, was it simply a reaction to postmodern style or a reaction to something deeper than it?

What I was reacting against was the mutation of architecture into scenography. In terms of the relative autonomy of architecture as a poetic of construction, the scenographic is somehow problematic, there have always been of course.

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The poetic of construction is deeply related to the issue of tectonics. We frequently see projects where the structure is just a skeleton meant to be hidden within an external technological skin. Is the role of tectonics disappearing? There is this drive, which is particularly evident in speculative development.

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In high rise buildings for example, where the curtain wall is the beginning and the end of the whole thing. Curtain wall is the cheapest thing to wrap a construction with. The tendency of choosing the cheapest way to finish is obviously there. But we can have this problem at many scales. I think, for example, about the 3d printing process, which basically uses plastic, for sure this process will become very important for the building industry in the future.

What do you think about this argument? The tendency of techno-scientific late modern society is a very reductive aspect of it. You can see it at many levels. It only has meaning as a resistance. Its logic is based on the market and profit, and there is no other aim.

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There is an example of resistance, Scandinavia, which is also a part of the world under the capitalist system, but is able to manage the society in such a way that the question of health and education is still provided for the society. We can see the consequences of this in terms of architecture, there is a very good production of buildings that are very specific in terms of light, materials and construction.

The US is the opposite, there is supposed to be free education, but there never was and there never will be, unless a fundamental revolution happens. Of all the developed countries, this is a country barbaric beyond belief, because we cannot provide neither health nor education. The present American administration will be happy if they can make Europe and the Scandinavian countries similar to them, bringing them into the same chaos.

The stylings of critical regionalism seek to provide an architecture rooted in the modern tradition, but tied to geographical and cultural context. Critical regionalism is not simply regionalism in the sense of vernacular architecture. It is a progressive approach to design that seeks to mediate between the global and the local languages of architecture.

Raum designates a place that is freed for settlement. It means a space for which room has been made, a boundary. Beyond Critical Regionalism. A conversation with Kenneth Frampton April 27, The critical point is the temperature and pressure at which the distinction between liquid and gas can no longer be made. At the critical point, the particles in a closed container are thought to be vaporizing at such a rapid rate that the density of liquid and vapor are equal, and thus form a supercritical fluid.

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As a result of the high rates of change, the surface tension of the liquid eventually disappears. You will have noticed that this liquid-vapor equilibrium curve has a top limit labeled as C in the phase diagram in Figure 1 , which is known as the critical point. The temperature and pressure corresponding to this are known as the critical temperature and critical pressure. If you increase the pressure on a gas vapor at a temperature lower than the critical temperature, you will eventually cross the liquid-vapor equilibrium line and the vapor will condense to give a liquid.

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Figure 1 : Phase diagram for a single component system with critical point emphasized. This works fine as long as the gas is below the critical temperature. What, though, if your temperature was above the critical temperature? There wouldn't be any line to cross!

[C05] Beyond critical thinking

That is because, above the critical temperature, it is impossible to condense a gas into a liquid just by increasing the pressure. All you get is a highly compressed gas. The particles have too much energy for the intermolecular attractions to hold them together as a liquid. The critical temperature obviously varies from substance to substance and depends on the strength of the attractions between the particles.

The stronger the intermolecular attractions, the higher the critical temperature. The condensation of a gas will never occur above the critical point. A massive amount of pressure can be applied to a gas in a closed container, and it may become highly dense, but will not exhibit a meniscus. Molecules at critical temperatures possess high kinetic energy, and as a result the intermolecular forces in the molecules are weakened.

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