When they gather for group work or discussions, give them talking guidelines, roles, and tools. Creating discussion guidelines with your students is a great place to start implementing oracy in your classroom. Create your discussion guidelines with your students. Show them examples of what good and bad discussion looks like. You can show them a prerecorded video, or model for them with another educator. It's common for young children to stay stuck in their beliefs and want to get their opinions across, which is one reason why it's important for them "to try to reach a shared agreement," explains Gaunt, "but sometimes that's not going to happen.
Understanding the flow of discussion helps to guide them through it. Your talk detectives will have a sheet of paper with the discussion guidelines on one side, and then three boxes to the right of it where they can write students' names and what they said that fit within the guidelines. Each grouping will yield a different type of conversation. Consider how to group your students based on the different types of conversations you want them to have. When starting out, focus first on teaching your students how to work in pairs.
In the primary grades, School 21 largely uses pairs, trios, and traverse see image below , and focuses on the other group structures -- like onion grouping -- as they get older. Each group configuration below shows different ways to do partner talk. When they begin exploring how to talk in larger groups -- five or six members -- they start to take on roles to help them guide the discussion. In primary, there are three roles that School 21 focuses on initially: clarifier, challenger, and summarizer.
To introduce conversation roles to your students, model them. School 21 teachers play recorded videos of themselves having conversations, and have their students analyze, identify, and discuss the roles they played. Once your students initiate the roles without guidance, you can introduce them to other roles, like builder, instigator, and prober. School 21 uses Talk Tasks , structured activities to help students discuss their learning within a lesson. They often use visuals to describe their Talk Tasks. In a math lesson about how time is measured, they have a visual split into two columns.
One column shows six images relating to different measurements of time, and the other one has sentence stems for partners A and B to discuss those time measurements. Talking points encourage discussion by navigating away from yes or no responses to questions, introducing students to a format on how to carry out the conversation.
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Students will either start speaking by saying, "I agree with that statement because" or "I disagree with that statement because. In School 21's history lesson on Ancient Greece, teachers used the talking point, "Beliefs were not important at all in Ancient Greece," and had their students talk in trios. Ghost Reading is a cross-curricular tool for encouraging students to speak. Have your students read aloud a text together. Leave it up to them to determine how long they read and who reads next. Collective Writing is a piece of writing created collaboratively.
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Pick a topic -- whether in science, English, history, or anything else -- and have your students take turns speaking about it. They can offer a paragraph, a sentence, or even a word, whatever they're comfortable with. Write down what your students say, and then read it aloud when they're done. In studying Ancient Greece , teachers form groups of five and have their students reach a consensus on who should be the new patron goddess or god of the fictional city-state Dasteinia. In addition to providing students an opportunity to expand their understanding of the content as they engage in peer-mediated instruction e.
Some evidence-based speaking and listening instructional routines have been useful for students during content area instruction in the past:.
Ebook Creating A Speaking And Listening Classroom Integrating Talk For Learning At Key Stage 2 2010
Oral Presentation Checklist. Technology offers teachers new ways to engage students in speaking and listening tasks. Even very young children are learning to follow oral directions while using tablets. Some enhancing speaking and listening tasks can be used in elementary content area instruction:. Regardless of the specific approach that a teacher takes, students simply must talk in class. We have to change the climate, expectations, and accountability for student-to-student interaction in classrooms everywhere. A day should not go by in which students silently try to learn content.
Instead, there should be a hum of learning, with many voices engaged in discussions about the topics under investigation. Only then will we fully realize the literacy achievements of our students orally, digitally, and in print. Speaking and Listening in Content Area Learning. The Reading Teacher, 68 1 , 64—69 doi: Author Interviews Meet your favorite authors and illustrators in our video interviews. Book Finder Create your own booklists from our library of 5, books!
Themed Booklists Dozens of carefully selected booklists, for kids years old. Nonfiction for Kids Tips on finding great books, reading nonfiction and more. Skip to main content. You are here Home. By: Douglas Fisher , Nancy Frey. Related Content Area Vocabulary Learning.
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Listening and reading comprehension Decades of research, not to mention personal experiences, confirm that listening comprehension outpaces reading comprehension from early childhood through at least middle school. Although there is significant attention to the Common Core reading and writing standards, we believe that teachers should also attend to the increased demands of the Speaking and Listening domain, especially Anchor Standard 1, which states that students should Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
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Instructional ideas for speaking and listening There are a number of ideas for ensuring that students across the grade span and in different content areas are able to practice their speaking and listening skills. Students are expected to present that text to the rest of the class while others listen. To ensure that students are listening, teachers often ask them to take notes, write down questions, or retell the information presented to a partner. For example, during their investigation of Earth and the solar system, the fifth-grade students in Ms.
Often, students are asked to provide their peers with feedback about their presentation skills. For example, the students in Mr. Ramirez's sixth-grade class had examined the impact of trash, with a focus on space junk and the garbage patch in the Pacific Ocean. One group focused on ocean currents and the creation of the Pacific garbage patch, using a Prezi with Google Earth images and narration.
These readings including instructions for students e. Check your partner. Does he or she have the title identified correctly? To ensure that students actually listen to one another, teachers create note-taking tools that require students to maintain a written record of the conversation.
As they had been taught, they stopped at each heading to engage in their conversation, taking notes as one member summarized, then another clarified, another questioned, and then the last person predicted what might come next in the text. One way to do this is with QR codes that can be printed and included in the image itself.
Alternatively, students can use the Aurasma app. This is an augmented-reality application that allows users to create and post video to enhance a viewing experience. For example, some museums use Aurasma for their patrons to view additional content after pointing a smartphone or tablet at a display.
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In terms of classroom application, students can create their own videos and pair them with displayed work. For example, during their investigation of artists, students in Ms. Bledsoe's third-grade class narrated their original artwork that had been inspired by a specific artist. When a tablet enabled with Aurasma was pointed at one of the art pieces, the video that accompanied the art played. When students' parents visited for open house, they were able to see their children talking about their work and to learn more about the other students in the class.
For example, the first graders in Anthony Munoz's classroom planted seeds. Each day, they took a picture of the container in which their seed was planted. Munoz helped his students create a time lapse video using Quicktime, and the students recorded their narrative about the growth of the plant that accompanied the video. The Storybird app provides access to thousands of illustrations and photographs to illustrate original pieces of writing.
Ebook Creating A Speaking And Listening Classroom Integrating Talk For Learning At Key Stage 2
These are best when completed collaboratively in order to create lots of opportunities for students to engage in meaningful discussion with one another. The Voicethread website offers two-way communication between writers and readers. Like Storybird, students create a digital story using the Voicethread tools and their own illustrations.
In addition, they dictate the text for each page. Subsequent listeners can either listen to the writer's own voice or read the dictated script. Importantly, readers can then pose questions and offer connections that are in turn viewed by other readers. As part of their social studies curriculum, Davinia Thompson's second-grade students used Voicethread to develop a class digital book on people who make a difference in their community. Thompson compiled each student's contributions and uploaded them to the Voicethread website. Later in the centers, students viewed the class book and recorded their comments and questions.
Thompson then had the entire class view the completed digital story, with their questions included, so the class could continue the conversation about the topic. Talking in class Regardless of the specific approach that a teacher takes, students simply must talk in class. References References Click the "References" link above to hide these references.